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The earliest evidence of an astrological significance of a seven-day period is connected to Gudea, priest-king of Lagash in Sumer during the Gutian dynasty, who built a seven-room temple, which he dedicated with a seven-day festival.

In the flood story of the Assyro-Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh the storm lasts for seven days, the dove is sent out after seven days, and the Noah-like character of Utnapishtim leaves the ark seven days after it reaches firm ground.

The term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days, such as the nundinal cycle of the ancient Roman calendar or the "work week" or "school week" referring only to the days spent on those activities. The Germanic word probably had a wider meaning prior to the adoption of the Roman calendar, perhaps "succession series", as suggested by Gothic wikō translating taxis "order" in Luke 1:8.

The seven-day week is named in many languages by a word derived from "seven".

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Circular diagrams showing the division of the day and of the week, from a Carolingian ms. In English, the names are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

The Babylonian system was received by the Greeks in the 4th century BC (notably via Eudoxus of Cnidus).

the integer value at noon UT): Adding one to the remainder after dividing the Julian day number by seven (JD modulo 7 1) yields that date's ISO 8601 day of the week (for example, the Julian day number of 11 February 2018 is 2458161.

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