In printing and Web page design, to arrange text and graphics on a page in a configuration that is aesthetically pleasing.
A library collection containing materials that present the full range of opinion on controversial issues and sensitive topics, for example, the "for" and "against" positions on legalized abortion, or religious books representing a variety of faiths.
A badge may also indicate the individual's position, enabling the patron to distinguish professionally trained librarians from members of the technical staff.
Not all libraries encourage employees to wear badges.
Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.The sewn or binding edge of the gathered sections of a book to which the lining is applied.The back may be flat, but more often it is given a convex curve in a binding procedure called rounding.On the Internet, regional networks are connected to the fiber-optic backbone, smaller networks are connected to regional networks, and so on, down the line.
To see examples for various countries, try a keywords search on the phrase "internet and backbone" in To make a document or transaction effective from a date earlier than its actual date, for example, a book order given a prior date with the publisher's permission, to allow the purchaser to qualify for an expired discount.
In illuminated manuscripts, the background in a miniature can be undecorated, diapered, or foliate, with or without gilding, as in the preceding examples from a Gospel book and a In bookbinding, the process of shaping a shoulder on each side of the binding edge of the text block after rounding, before lining is applied to the back.