The surface uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) offers a key testing ground for evaluating models of collisional tectonics and holds important implications for processes ranging from global cooling to the onset of the Asian monsoon.
Various models have been proposed to reveal the surface uplift history of the TP, but controversies remain.
Calligraphy requires decades of dedicated study to achieve mastery. Japanese: kaisho)From its earliest origins dating back to the Xia Dynasty culture (2100-1600), Chinese calligraphy passed through several early stages before the present-day script - known as Kai-shu - emerged.
For example, an aspiring student will practice inscribing the Chinese "yong" character hundreds (if not thousands) of times in order to produce the eight essential strokes which together make up the character. These stages involved the scripts known as: Jiaguwen (chia-ku-wen), Jinwen (chin-wen), Dazhuan (hsiao chuan) and Li-shu (li-shu) scripts.
Popular styles included Kai-shu, Xing-shu, Li-shu and Cao-shu.
In addition, it has influenced many styles of Asian art, including "sumi-e", a type of Chinese and Japanese art (painting) based entirely on calligraphy. Although practised in rudimentary forms since the 16th century BCE, it was not until the publication of a series of articles towards the end of the era of Han Dynasty art, that the foundations for Chinese calligraphy were properly established.
At any rate, although it continued to develop, Chinese calligraphy never achieved the heights of creativity attained under the Tang and earlier dynasties.
Archeological excavations provided some impetus for a revival of interest in Han era and other pre-Tang calligraphic scripts.
Influential calligraphic publications included "Shu Duan" by Zhang Huaihuan, in which he outlined the history and characteristics of 10 separate scripts.
Another important contribution was "Shu Pu" by Sun Guoting, which explained a step-by-step study method.
Therefore Li-shu became the No 1 script, in fact, throughout the four centuries of Han rule, the vast majority of all tablets were written in Li-shu and Han calligraphers became the foremost Li Shu draughtsmen.